ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: ALKANES
All chain alkanes belong to an homologous series which has the general 
formula CnH2n+2; the Table shows some data for typical homologues. In
industry, most of these saturated hydrocarbons are usually obtained by
the fractional distillation of either petroleum oil or the products of
cracking; they are used mainly as fuels and as industrial solvents.
 Systematic name 
 Molecular formula 
  (state at 25ーC)
 Boiling
 pt. / ーC 
 Heat of combustion 
  (DH) / kJ mol-ケ
 Ethane
     C2H6   (g)
   -89
       -1560
 Propane
     C3H8   (g)
   -42
       -2220
 2-Methylpropane
     C4H10  (g)
   -11.5
       -2875
 Butane
     C4H10  (g)
   -0.5
       -2880
 Octane
     C8H18  (l)
   +126
       -5520
 Eicosane
     C20H42 (s)
   +343
      -13440

1.  The female tiger moth (Homomelia imaculata) signifies its presence
to the males by secreting minute quantities of a sex attractant. This
example of an insect 'pheromone' is a 2-methyl branched-chain alkane
with a molecular formula of C18H38; the straight-chain isomer does not
elicit a response. Noting the structural difference between butane and
2-methylpropane, draw the structural formula of this pheromone. _______
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2.  Natural gas, which is mostly methane, is a non-renewable resource.
However, fermentation of sewage gives a mixture of methane and carbon
dioxide known as 'biogas'; the following symbol equation summarizes one
biological process that occurs in fermenters and in landfill sites:
                       Methanobacteria enzymes
            C6H12O6(aq) 覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧 3CH4(g) + 3CO2(g)    -DE
(a) State briefly why both methane and carbon dioxide are considered to
be 'greenhouse' gases. ________________________________________________
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(b) Biogas can be used as a fuel, because some of its chemical energy
is transduced to 'high-grade' heat energy when the methane burns:
        CH4(g) + 2O2(g) 覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧 CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)    -DH
The heat of combustion for a straight-chain alkane can be calculated
from the linearly proportional relationship  DH = k ラ n + c, where: k 
is a proportionality constant, with a value of -660 kJ mol-ケ; n is the
number of carbons; and c is a constant, with a value of -240 kJ mol-ケ. 
Use this relationship to calculate the heat of combustion (DH) for:
Methane (b.pt. -164ーC) ________________________________________________
Pentane (b.pt. +36ーC) _________________________________________________
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3.  Petrol is a blended mixture of several branched- and straight-chain
alkanes, including heptane [C7H16(l)], octane, and nonane [C9H20(l)]. 
The symbol equation for the complete combustion of gaseous heptane is:
            2C7H16(g) + 22O2(g) 覧覧覧覧 14CO2(g) + 16H2O(g)
Incomplete combustion will occur, however, if there is not sufficient 
atmospheric oxygen available; e.g.,
            2C7H16(g) + 15O2(g) 覧覧覧覧 14CO(g) + 16H2O(g)
(a) Construct a symbol equation for the complete combustion of octane.
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(b) The combustion properties of petrol are improved by additives such
as methanol [CH3OH(l)], tetraethyllead [(C2H5)4Pb(l)], tetramethyllead
[(CH3)4Pb(l)], and methoxy-2-methylpropane [CH3OC(CH3)3(l)].
Construct a symbol equation for the synthesis of tetraethyllead, which
is manufactured by heating a mixture of sodium, lead, and chloroethane.
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Suggest a suitable solvent for tetraethyllead; this covalent compound
is immiscible with water. _____________________________________________
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Tetraethyllead burns to form lead(IV) oxide, carbon dioxide, and steam.
Construct the symbol equation for this combustion reaction. ___________
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Suggest one advantage in using methoxy-2-methylpropane as an additive.
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(c) Pollutants emitted from a vehicle exhaust include carbon monoxide,
nitrogen oxides, and unburned hydrocarbons; these are converted into 
safer emissions if the exhaust is fitted with a 'catalytic convertor':
                                Pt-Rh / D
                2CO(g) + 2NO(g) 覧覧覧覧 CO2(g) + N2(g)
Describe one biological effect of carbon monoxide. ____________________
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State three effects of nitrogen oxide pollutants. _____________________
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Vehicles with convertors must use unleaded-petrol to minimize 'catalyst 
poisoning'. Explain how lead compounds inhibit such catalysts. ________
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4.  Candlewax is usually a mixture of organic compounds from different 
homologous series, including alkanes such as eicosane and triacontane 
(C30H62). Suggest one technique which could be used to show that wax is
not a pure compound. __________________________________________________
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Products formed from the incomplete combustion of wax include soot and
carbon monoxide. Soot is largely a non-crystalline (or amorphous) form 
of which element? _____________________________________________________
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