Tin, a rare element in the Earth's crust (0.0002%), occurs mainly in 
the ore cassiterite [impure tin(IV) oxide]. The metal was obtained 
first in the Bronze Age, when a mixture of coal and rocks was heated 
in air; so, presumably, one of the reactions that occurred was:
Modern technology uses coke and purified cassiterite in a furnace: but,
otherwise, the extractive method used to obtain tin, as well as copper 
and lead, has not fundamentally changed over 7000 years.
[.. K > Ca > Mg > Al > Zn > Fe > Co > Sn > Pb > (H) > Cu > Hg > Ag ..]
1. The principal ore of lead, a relatively rare element (0.001%) in Earth's crust, is galena [impure lead(II) sulfide]. Lead(II) oxide is formed when this ore is heated in air, and the metal is extracted by the chemical reduction of this oxide with carbon in a furnace. (a) Construct the symbol equation for each reaction in this process. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ [4] (b) Carbon and carbon monoxide are the commonest reducing agents used industrially to reduce metal oxides, but others are also used (e.g., aluminium and dihydrogen). In the laboratory, reductions with hydrogen gas can be attempted using the apparatus shown in this diagram.
This is an open system in which equilibrium is never reached; thus, as
predicted by Le Chatelier's Principle, the stream of dihydrogen ensures
that the position of equilibrium continually 'shifts to the right'. 
The Table below shows the calculated heat energy changes for the 
reduction of various metal(II) oxides with dihydrogen; i.e.,
State and explain the effect of a temperature increase on the:
Rate of each reaction _________________________________________________
Yields of products in each endothermic reaction _______________________
Yields of products in each exothermic reaction ________________________
2.  Tin, ( = 232C; r = 7.29 g cm-), and lead, ( = 327C; r
= 11.34 g cm-), are both used extensively in alloys. Name two alloys
which contain either or both metals. __________________________________
3.  Tin is used to manufacture 'tin-plate' (i.e., steel plated with a
layer of tin). Explain how tin protects steel from corrosion. _________

4.  Approximately half of the lead produced is used in the manufacture
of storage batteries; in turn, these are recycled to provide about 40% 
of industry's requirements of lead. A lead storage battery consists of 
six cells connected in series; each 2 V cell, which has a lead anode, a 
cathode made of lead(IV) oxide, and an electrolyte of aqueous sulfuric
acid, delivers high currents for short periods of time.
(a) When a battery discharges (i.e., when in use providing the required
voltage), the reactions occurring at the electrodes are:
State the energy change which occurs during discharge. ________________
(b) Suggest and explain one reason why such batteries are labelled with
the hazard symbol 'No smoking'. _______________________________________
(c) Recharging the battery involves applying an external voltage to the 
anode and cathode. What name is given to this reversal of the above 
electrochemical reactions? ____________________________________________
5.  Compounds of tin and lead have few (if any) beneficial functions in 
living organisms. However, lead compounds are known to be particularly
toxic, because lead(II) ions inhibit the 'active sites' of a number of 
enzymes; furthermore, as with so many non-biodegradable biocides, they
accumulate up the trophic levels.
(a) Name two sources of the lead ions introduced into the environment,
apart from lead storage batteries and mine-workings. __________________
(b) The diagram below represents one food chain in the complex food web
of a typical slow-moving river in a temperate region.
Estimate the amount of lead(II) ions which could be accumulated by one 
otter, assuming: that each consumer in this food chain obtains its 
chemical energy by eating 10 individuals of the organism at the trophic 
level immediately below it; that none of the consumers egest or excrete 
these ions; and that each duckweed plant absorbed 0.01 mg of these
ions. _________________________________________________________________
Name the source of energy for the producer in this food chain. ________
Dr. R. Peters Next Contents' List